Smoking is a risk factor for nonmedical use of prescription opioids, and daily & intermittent smokers are three times more likely to report past year non-medical prescription opioid use. Marijuana and tobacco are often used in combination. Co-treatment of opioids, marijuana, and nicotine use maximizes overall behavioral health outcomes for clients, and there exists ample research on co-treatment models and strategies for integrating tobacco dependence treatment into existing behavioral health services.

Below, you’ll find a digest of available resources and information related to the linkage between opioids, marijuana, and tobacco use.

General Resources/Information

Research Articles

This resource digest will continue to be updated as resources are gathered so please keep checking back!

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