Smoking is a risk factor for nonmedical use of prescription opioids, and daily & intermittent smokers are three times more likely to report past year non-medical prescription opioid use. Marijuana and tobacco are often used in combination. Co-treatment of opioids, marijuana, and nicotine use maximizes overall behavioral health outcomes for clients, and there exists ample research on co-treatment models and strategies for integrating tobacco dependence treatment into existing behavioral health services.
Below, you’ll find a digest of available resources and information related to the linkage between opioids, marijuana, and tobacco use.
- SCLC Infographic: The Opioid Epidemic & Smoking: Quick Facts
- Report: Facing Addiction in America: The Surgeon General’s Spotlight on Opioids (2018)
- Fact Sheet from Indiana: The Unhealthy Connection: Tobacco Addiction among People with Substance Abuse Disorders
- Fact Sheet from Blending Initiative (NIDA/SAMHSA): Smoking Cessation Therapies Benefit Substance Use Disorder Clients
- [Archived Recording] NBHN-hosted 2/1/19 Affinity Call on Co-Treatment of Opioids, Marijuana & Nicotine
- Upcoming NBHN Webinar, April 8th, 2019 @ 2:00pm ET: Improving Recovery Outcomes: Addressing Tobacco, Opioid and Marijuana Co-Treatment
- Drug abuse staff and clients smoking together: A shared addiction (Guydish et al, 2017, Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 76: 64–68)
- Impact of quitting smoking and smoking cessation treatment on substance use outcomes: An updated and narrative review (McKelvey et al, Addict Behav. 2017 February; 65: 161–170)
- Clinical Correlates of Co-Occurring Cannabis and Tobacco Use: A Systematic Review (Peters et al, Addiction. 2012 August; 107(8): 1404–1417)
- A Review of Co-Morbid Tobacco and Cannabis Use Disorders: Possible Mechanisms to Explain High Rates of Co-Use (Rabin et al, The American Journal on Addictions, 24: 105–116, 2015)
- Big Marijuana — Lessons from Big Tobacco (Richter & Levy, 2014, The New England Journal of Medicine)
- A Systematic Review of Smoking Cessation Interventions for Adults in Substance Abuse Treatment or Recovery (Thurgood et al, Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 2016, 993–1001)
- Opioid Analgesics and Nicotine: More Than Blowing Smoke (Yoon et al., 2015, Journal of Pain & Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy, 29:3, 281-289)
This resource digest will continue to be updated as resources are gathered so please keep checking back!
If you have resources/information on this topic that you’d like us to add to this list, please email us at BHtheChange@TheNationalCouncil.org.